NOKIA: dulu jagoan jadi nggak relevan

Sebagian besar dari kita tentu mengenal Nokia, bahkan menjadi pengguna produk pada masanya. Siapa yang tidak ingat “banana phone” keluaran Nokia yang sangat populer. Tahun 2007 adalah puncak kejayaan Nokia yang berhasil menguasai 51% pangsa cellphone di seluruh dunia. Sebagai perbandingan, Apple saja sekarang hanya mampu menguasai 25% pangsa pasar, sehingga terlihat bagaimana Nokia bisa mendominasi pasar pada waktu itu. Nokia mengubah mindset bahwa cellphone juga dikaitkan dengan fashion sehingga mendapat respons yang luar biasa.

Namun demikian hanya dalam waktu enam tahun, Nokia kemudian hampir mengalami kebangkrutan, dan akhirnya diakuisisi oleh Microsoft seharga 7.2 miliar dollar. Ada apa dengan Nokia sehingga dalam waktu cepat bisa terlempar dari kompetisi cellphone pada waktu itu?

Kesalahan pertama Nokia adalah terlalu fokus kepada pembuatan hardware. Desain yang menarik tentu menjadi daya tarik pembeli, tetapi cellphone tidak bisa berfungsi ketika tidak memiliki sistem operasi. Sementara pesaingnya telah mulai mengembangkan sistem operasi android dan IOS, Nokia ketinggalan karena terus menggunakan Symbian sebagai sistem operasinya. Berbeda dengan symbian, android dan IOS sudah berbasis aplikasi.

Kesalahan berikutnya Nokia ketika pesaingnya seperti samsung, motorola, huawei sudah mengadopsi android ketika google memasuki pasar di tahun 2008, Nokia tetap bersikeras menggunakan sistem operasinya sendiri yaitu Symbian. Akhirnya Nokia menyerah, pada tahun 2011 mereka beralih menggunakan windows phone bekerjasama dengan microsoft. Keputusan tersebut fatal karena akhirnya windows phone gagal sehingga Nokia kehilangan dominasinya sebagai penguasa pasar. Android sendiri sudah terbukti sekarang digunakan 80% smartphone saat ini. Ketika akhirnyapada tahun 2014 Nokia memutuskan beralih ke android, semuanya sudah terlambat.

Nokia juga memiliki masalah dengan struktur organisasinya. Ketika memutuskan mengubah organisasi berdasarkan hirarki pada tahun 2004 menjadi organisasi matriks, ternyata keputusan ini bermasalah. Keinginan agar lebih inovatif dengan matriks organisasi, ternyata malah menimbulkan krisis. Dalam organisasi matriks manager memiliki beberapa kewenangan, dan ini menimbulkan konflik sehingga inovasi terhambat dan proses pengambilan keputusan juga menjadi lama. Sebagai perbandingan, Apple sebagai pesaing tetap menggunakan organisasi hirarki dimana Steve Jobs sebagai puncak hirarki tersebut.

Terakhir, Nokia tidak mampu mengantisipasi gelombang smartphone di awal tahun 2000-an. Ketika kompetitor mulai beralih ke smartphone, Nokia memilih fokus ke pembuatan cellphone yang berkualitas baik, murah, tahan lama dan menarik. Ternyata keinginan pasar berbeda, ketika Apple keluar di pasar, semua orang menginginkan smartphone tersebut. Nokia gagal mengantisipasi kebutuhan pasar padahal pada waktu itu posisinya masih sebagai pemimpin pasar. Apple setelah mengeluarkan smartphone segera mengambil alih posisi sebagai pemimpin pasar hingga kini.

Ini adalah salah satu bukti bahwa yang bertahan adalah yang mampu beradaptasi dengan lingkungan. Seperti Charles Darwin mengatakan “It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent. It is the one most adaptable to change”. Lingkungan perusahaan terus berubah, dan yang mampu mengantisipasi atau memanfaatkan perubahan tersebut yang akan mampu bertahan dan meraih kesuksesan. Teknologi berkembang sangat cepat dan demografi konsumen juga berubah. Generasi muda memiliki perilaku yang berbeda. Kekuatan ekonomi negara juga bergeser. Sumber daya alam menipis. Isu sustainability mengemuka. Pandemi belum ada tanda akan berakhir. Kesemua ini adalah dinamika yang perlu diperhatikan oleh perusahaan. Adalah tidak mungkin perusahaan tidak beradaptasi dan tetap mengharapkan hasil yang sama.

Bagaimana perusahaan di tempat anda bekerja? Semoga ikut beradaptasi mengikuti perubahan.

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